Contents ...
udn网络城邦
拯救世界的中国传统文化
2015/04/12 04:28
浏览959
回响0
推荐5
引用0

(The article praised by my queen as the best she had read in recent year.)

THE TRADITIONAL CHINESE CULTURE THAT SAVES THE WORLD

拯救世界的中国传统文化

Discourses of Joseph Needham and Bertrand Russell on the value of Traditional Chinese Culture——李约瑟、罗素谈中国传统文化的价值

 

I.  INTRODUCTIONBENEVOLENCE AND HARMONY CAN BRING HAPPINESS

一、开篇——仁爱、祥和带来幸福

 

In 1922, the world-famous British philosopher, Bertrand Russell, after visiting China to lecture for a year, wrote his well-known book The Problem of China and commented:

 

The Chinese have discovered, and have practised for many centuries, a way of life which, if it could be adopted by all the world, would make all the world happy.  We Europeans have not.  Our way of life demands strife, exploitation, restless change, discontent and destruction.  Efficiency directed to destruction can only end in annihilation, and it is to this consummation that our civilization is tending, if it cannot learn some of that wisdom for which it despises the East. [1]

 

一九二二年,英国著名的哲学家罗素,在访华讲学之后写下了他的名著《中国问题》:「中国人摸索出的生活方式,已沿袭数千年,若能够被全世界采纳,地球上肯定会比现在有更多的欢乐祥和。追求速度效率导致的破坏,最终只能带来毁灭,而我们的文明正走向这一结局。因此需要借鉴一向被我们轻视的东方智能。」

 

    This is the conclusion reached by Russell after he personally visited China.  Russell was born in 1827 and is lauded as one of the most influential philosopher, mathematician, and logician of the twentieth century.  He was also one of the most prominent anti-war activists in the West (and went to prison for his pacifism during World War I[2]).  “It was on the Volga, in the summer of 1920,” Russell witnessed the “inactive despair” brought by industrialization to the Russian nomads on the sandbank of Volga that he wrote:  “I first realized how profound is the disease in our Western mentality….  It was in this mood that I set out for China to seek a new hope.”[3] He expected the Chinese civilization to bring new hope to the world.  The next year Russell went to Beijing to lecture on philosophy and wished to understand the Chinese civilization through personal experience.  A year later, he exclaimed that in the face of the humility, patience, generosity, benevolence, and the wisdom of the Chinese, erudite philosopher like him has nothing to teach.  He humbly expressed that he came to China to learn.[4]

这是罗素在中国实地考察之后得出的结论。出生于一八七二年的罗素,被誉为二十世纪最有影响力的哲学家、数学家和逻辑学家之一,也是西方最著名的和平主义社会活动家之一。一九二年夏,罗素在伏尔加河畔,目睹了工业化给当地人带来的绝望和麻木,深深地感到,整个世界正在经历一场文明的危机,他因而期待著中国文明给世界带来新的希望。次年,罗素赴北京讲学,期望身临其境以了解中华文明。一年后,他感歎道:面对谦卑、忍耐、豁达、仁爱、智能的中国人,像他这样的知识渊博的哲学家,原来是无学可讲的。他谦卑地说,自己是到中国来学习的。

 

Thirty-three years later, Joseph Needham, the scientist and sinologist also from Britain, wrote in his book Within the Four Seas: the Dialogue of East and West:

 

A high degree of bureaucratic government seems quite inevitable given the technological complexities of modern society, but modern science has provided a thousand aids and adjuncts which could make it work well….  Nothing is lacking except goodwill.  Goodwill is the commitment to treating ordinary people with sympathy and understanding…This is the promised peace on earth, and whoever puts first the real needs of real people will inherit it….  Here the Chinese may have a great task to perform in the teaching of the rest of the world, as their bureaucracy has an experience of more than two millennia.  There may yet be virtue in Confucian traditions, as there was in the eighteenth century when the Latin translation of the classics revealed to an astonished world the existence of a morality without supernaturalism, and of a great continuing culture which had emphatically not been based upon the pessimistic doctrine of original sin.[5]

 

三十三年后,同样来自英国的科学家、汉学家李约瑟在《四海之内:东方和西方的对话》中,说道:

 

「(现代社会)有许多工具、设备都可以拿来为我们所用,可是我们唯一缺少的只是一点——仁爱的精神。所谓「仁爱」就是自愿地以同情和体谅的态度对待普罗大众。……这种仁爱的精神就是世界和平的希望所系。只有真正把人民的需要放在第一位的人,才能具有这样的仁爱精神。……在这一方面,中国人负有重大的责任去教育世界上其它各国的人民,因为中国已经有两千多年的政治经验。我们在孔子的传统思想中,还可以找到不少有益的东西,正如在十八世纪,传统中国的经典著作译成拉丁文之后,震动了整个世界,人们这才意识到,世界上还有一种超脱现实之上的道德规范,还有一种源远流长的伟大文化,不是建立在原罪的基础上。」[6]

 

Joseph Needham is the sinologist most respected by the Chinese and is acclaimed as “the Old Friend of Chinese.”  For over half a century, he buried himself in research and combed through more than two millennia of the history of Chinese technology.  His accomplishment in compiling a list of every mechanical invention and abstract idea that had been made and conceived in China is a first in world history.[7]  In 1954 he published the first volume of Science and Civilisation in China, which his students are still proceeding with the project under the schema of a total of 7 volumes.  In Science and Civilisation in China, he depicted the splendid Chinese technological civilization since ancient times from the perspective of world cultures so that people can profoundly perceive its precious value to the world.

李约瑟是中国人最为尊重的汉学家,被誉为「中国人的老朋友」,五十多年来,他索隐钩沉,终于梳理出中国两千多年间的科技史,此为有史以来的首次创举,他开创了编写《中国科学技术史》的事业,至今仍由他的学生们继续研究。《中国科学技术史》以世界文化的视角,阐述古代灿烂的中华科技文明,使人们深刻感到中华文明对于世界文明的宝贵价值。

 

For the development of Chinese studies, he set up the Joseph Needham Institute at Cambridge University.  In the last year of his life in 1995, he told the public that he believed China will rise again because a nation possessing such greet civilization and such great people will definitely contribute greatly to world civilization.  On March 23 of the same year, the day before Needham passed away, he still had someone reading materials concerning China to him.  At the last moment of his life when he could not speak, he was still trying hard to utter the word “China.”  As an old friend of the Chinese people, he had most poignantly manifested the profundity of humanity, a genuine heart innocent as a child. 

为了进行中国研究,李约瑟创立了「剑桥大学李约瑟研究所」,在他生命最后的一九九五年,他告诉大众,自己确信中国能够再度崛起,「一个拥有如此伟大文化的国家,一个拥有如此伟大人民的国家,必将对世界文明再次做出伟大的贡献。」同年三月二十三日,李约瑟在临终前一天,还让人给他朗读有关中国的资料;在说不出话的最后一刻,还在努力念出China。中国人民的老朋友,对于人类深沉、真挚的赤子之心,令人动容。

 

This “Elder’s Wisdom” of Joseph Needham as a caveat has high value.  What he meant when he said “China will rise again” is the restoration of the traditional Chinese culture in the perimeters of the whole world.  The reason this culture can benefit the whole world is because it can make ordinary people benevolent and righteous and every family live in harmony.  If Russell discovered the humble, yielding, harmonious way of life according to Chinese tradition that can bring real happiness to the entire human race; then, Needham further explained the root cause of this happy life—the goodwill of “treating ordinary people with sympathy and understanding”; to live a life adhering to a code of ethics; to firmly believe in the innate goodness of human’s original nature when interacting with people and things; and to govern with goodwill.

李约瑟的「老人言」具有高度的警示价值,他所说的「再度崛起」是指中华传统文化在全球范围内的复兴,这个文化之所以能够惠利天下,其表现便是能够让普罗大众人人心存仁义,家家生活祥和。如果说罗素发现了中国传统谦让、祥和的生活方式,能够给整个人类带来真正的幸福,那么李约瑟则进一步说明了幸福生活的根本所在:让心中充满了仁爱、遵循道德规范去生活、以坚信本性本善的心待人接物,并本著仁民爱物的思想来办政治。

 

In the prologue of the nursery rhyme Tri-Word Couplets, it instructed children: “The original nature of people is goodness.”  Because the self-nature of mankind is innately good, the virtues of beneficence, modesty, tolerance as an attitude of life, a way of life, is shared by every race in the world.  The core value of all human religions is love.  The Bible said: “For God so loved the world…”[8]  In the Koran, Allah is described as “the entirely Beneficent, the Especially Merciful.”[9]  The Western people often acclaimed Confucius and the education of Confucianism, although not a religion, but have the effect of a religion, especially in the function of stabilizing the society.  This is because filial piety as a Confucian virtue in the true Chinese tradition will expand and regard mankind as a single unity; will respect, love, and protect all males and females in the world as one’s own parents; and this type of universal love is in accord with the religious education.  Therefore, Needham quoted a passage in the Analects to conclude his life study of China: “Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, and let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety -- then all within the four seas will be his brothers[10].

中国童蒙教材《三字经》,第一句话就教小朋友:「人之初,性本善」。因为本性本善,所以心存仁爱、谦和包容的生活态度、生活方式,是全球各族人民所共有的。人类宗教教育的核心,就是爱,《圣经约翰福音》说「神爱世人」(《约翰福音》3:16);《古兰经》说:真主安拉:「他是至仁的,他是至慈的。」(《古兰经》59:22)。西方人常常将孔子和儒家教育誉为「虽不是宗教,却与宗教教化起到了同样安定社会的作用」。这是因为,传统中国儒家的孝道,扩展开来,就是将整个人类视为一体、恭敬爱护一切男女宛若父母双亲,这种博爱的精神,与宗教教育相合。所以,李约瑟用《论语》的一句话总结了他一生的中国研究:「君子敬而无失,与人恭而有礼,四海之内皆兄弟也。」

 

With the advanced development of modern technology, globalization is a naturally tendency.  The different races isolated from each other before are now meeting frequently; the different religions developed indigenously are now coexisting and their disciples live together as neighbors.  At this moment, the discovery of Russell and the conclusion of Needham have made the modern interpretation of traditional Chinese culture prominent--the life attitude of beneficence, respect, honesty, modesty, and harmony, which can make our multi-cultural world truly unify and fraternize, regard all as brothers and sisters.

现代科技高度发展、全球化成为必然的趋势,原先老死不相往来的族群,如今经常会面;原先各自在不同地区发展出来的宗教传统,现在成为共同生活在一起的邻居。此刻,罗素的发现以及李约瑟的总结,便突出显示出中华传统文化的现代意义:仁爱存心、诚敬谦和的生活态度,能够让多元文化的世界,彼此真正团结,情同手足。

 

II. THE LIFE EDUCATION OF TRADITIONAL CULTURE—EVERYONE KNOWS PROPRIETY AND RIGHTEROUSNESS

二、传统文化的人生教育——人人知礼义

 

The China Russell visited in the 1920’s was at the turning point of transforming traditional China into modern China.  The family education and the education of traditional culture have not yet completely disappeared.  The modern industrialization of the Chinese society has not yet formed.  Therefore, Russell was able to personal feel the tremendous, transformative impact of traditional Chinese culture.  Because of his personal experience, Russell exclaimed that nominally he was teaching China but actually he was taught by China.  It is noteworthy that the people who impressed Russell were not just the literati but also those illiterate, ordinary people who are deeply conscious of righteousness and reverently observant of propriety.

罗素所处的一九二年代的中国,是传统中国和现代中国的转折点,传统文化教育、家庭教育尚未完全消失,现代工业化社会还未形成,因而罗素得以亲身体会到传统文化巨大的教化力量。因为有了这一番亲身经历,罗素感歎自己名义上是执教中国,实为中国所教化。 值得注意的是,真正在中国教化罗素的,不仅仅有知识分子,还有那些不识字却深明大义、心存礼敬的普通老百姓。

 

Gu Hong-ming, with the pen name Amoy Ku, (1857-1928), renown for his Confucian values, knowledge of several European languages and European culture,[11] told the story of a Scotch friend of his in his essay The Spirit of the Chinese People as follows:[12]  

 

The friend had a Chinese servant who was a perfect scamp, who lied, who "squeezed," and who was always gambling, but when my friend fell ill with typhoid fever in an out-of-the-way port where he had no foreign friend to attend to him, this awful scamp of a Chinese servant nursed him with a care and devotion which he could not have expected from an intimate friend or near relation. Indeed I think what was once said of a woman in the Bible may also be said, not only of the Chinese servant, but of the Chinese people generally:—"Much is forgiven them, because they love much." The eyes and understanding of the foreigner in China see many defects and blemishes in the habits and in the character of the Chinese, but his heart is attracted to them, because the Chinese have a heart, or, as I said, live a life of the heart—a life of emotion or human affection.[13]

 

Many foreigners staying in China, before and after the Chinese Revolution in 1911, like this Scottish person, have good relationships with the Chinese.  They are all of the same opinion that the Chinese is very caring and tolerant.

一九一年代,一位在中国工作的苏格兰人请了一位中国苦力做仆人。这位仆人喜欢赌博,让他的苏格兰雇主非常看不起,理所当然地觉得他道德低下。然而,当苏格兰人在一个偏僻的港口染上伤寒,身边没有一个朋友愿意照顾他的时候,就是这位不识字、看上去「不道德」的中国苦力,对他全心全力、悉心照顾、直到康复、无怨无求。苦力对生病的雇主,危急时刻不离不弃、充满爱心、雪中送炭,让这位苏格兰人深受感动,他感歎:「就算是我的亲人、最好的朋友都也没有对我这么好过!」[14]像这位苏格兰人一样,很多在晚清和民国初年在中国工作的外国人,都非常喜欢和中国人相处,他们不约而同地感到:中国人厚道、有爱心。

 

 

Master Gu, a literati of Chinese classics in the last vestige of Chin dynasty, opined that only those Chinese who had accepted the education of ethical relations, virtues, and the law of cause and effect expounded by the traditional culture can be called the “real Chinaman,” whether they are the literati or illiterate, high ranking government officials or grass root commoners.  In his words,

 

The real Chinaman…is a man who lives the life of a man of adult reason with the heart of a child. In short the real Chinaman is a person with the head of a grown-up man and the heart of a child. The Chinese spirit, therefore, is a spirit of perpetual youth, the spirit of national immortality….  Now if the spirit of the Chinese people is a spirit of perpetual youth, the spirit of national immortality, the secret of this immortality is this happy union of soul with intellect.” [15]

 

正因如此,晚清的国学大师辜鸿铭认为,接受了传统文化的伦理、道德、因果教育的中国人,才算是「真正的中国人」,无论是知识分子还是文盲,无论是地位崇高的政要还是草根阶层的百姓,「真正的中国人就是有著赤子之心和成年的人的智能,过著心灵生活的一群人……中国人的精神乃是一种永葆青春的精神,是族类不朽的精神……这种精神就是心灵与理智的完美和谐。」

 

A man of adult reason with the heart of a child is the virtue of filial piety; the manifestation of “the affinity between father and son.”  Filial piety in children makes them responsible in the support their parents and in turn responsible and loyal in their work ethics.   To nurse the gravely ill employer “with a care and devotion which he could not have expected from an intimate friend or near relation” is the extension of filial piety—to honor the aged as we honor our own aged parents.  Although emphasizing spirituality and human affection but without losing rationality in the attendance of people and things is the manifestation of reverence and sincerity.  It is “embracing love and respect in the heart.”

虽然有著高度智能却依然赤子之心不改,这是孝道、是「父子有亲」的具体体现;因为侍奉双亲孝顺,故能对工作忠心耿耿,事奉病重的雇主宛若孝子事父,这是「老吾老及人之老」,是孝义;虽然重视精神与情义,待人处事却依然不失理智,这是「爱敬存心」,是真诚恭敬的具体体现。

 

Russell felt that the future of mankind hinges on traditional Chinese culture and said:

 

The natural Chinese attitude is one of tolerance and friendliness, showing courtesy and expecting it in return. If the Chinese chose, they could be the most powerful nation in the world. But they only desire freedom, not domination…

 

Comparing the civilization of China with that of Europe … [i]t seemed to me that the average Chinaman, even if he is miserably poor, is happier than the average Englishman, and is happier because the nation is built upon a more humane and civilized outlook than our own. [16]

 

The Chinese, from the highest to the lowest, have an imperturbable quiet dignity….  The business of "saving face," which often strikes foreigners in China as ludicrous, is only the carrying-out of respect for personal dignity in the sphere of social manners.  Everybody has "face," even the humblest beggar; there are humiliations that you must not inflict upon him, if you are not to outrage the Chinese ethical code. [17] 

 

罗素感到这才是人类的未来所系。他说:「中国人温文尔雅,他们所要求的只不过是正义和自由。比起西方文化,他们的文化更能使人类快乐……中国人,从上层社会到底层百姓,都有一种冷静安详的尊严……他们在社会上形成互相尊敬的风气,每个人,都有面子,即使最卑贱的乞丐。如果你不想违犯中国人的伦理准则,那就连乞丐也不能侮辱。」[18]

 

III. CAUTION IN THE DEVLOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGYTHE VISION AND STRATEGY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE CULTURE

三、谨慎发展科技——中国传统文化的深谋远虑

 

Embracing love and respect, educated under traditional culture the Chinese, especially those leaders and social elites often “worry about the future ten millennia within their short lifespan of less than a century.”  In the traditional Chinese society, from the emperor to the subjects, from the highest to the lowest, all seek harmony and love peace.  In the administration of national affairs and policies concerning the livelihood of the common people, they take into consideration the responsibility towards posterity in the millennia.  Russell greatly admired this mentality and said: “The Chinese nation, is the most, patient in the world; it thinks of centuries as other nations think of decades[19].”  He commented that the thinking units of the Chinese are not decades but ten millennia.

因为爱敬存心,传统文化教育下的中国人,尤其是领导人和社会精英,常常是「生年不满百,常怀千岁忧」。所以,传统社会的君臣上下,无不热爱和平、寻求和谐,在处理关乎社稷、国计民生的大事时,所考虑的,是要对千秋万代的子孙负责。罗素对此非常钦佩,他说:「中华民族是全世界最富忍耐力的民族,当其它民族只顾及到数十年的近忧之时,中国则已想到几个世纪之后的远虑。」罗素说:「中国人的思考单位,不是十年,而是万年。」

 

Unfortunately, the Chinese Russell was in contact with almost disappeared by the 1950’s when Joseph Needham visited China.  During those thirty years, China went through two World Wars.  Especially, after the invasion of Japan, China has lost the traditional family and clans and, even worse, has neglected the traditional cultural education of ethical relations, virtues, and the law of cause and effect.  Education is the vital force of a culture.  Losing the education of the saints and sages, the traditional culture is facing the crisis of disruption.  The unfortunate result of this cultural disruption is evident today.  Therefore, to restore the education of traditional culture is a top priority, the most urgent business.

遗憾的是,罗素一九二年代所接触到的中国人,李约瑟在一九五年代已经不多见了。中国在此三十年间, 经历了两次世界大战。尤其是在遭受日本侵略之后,中国普遍失去了传统意义上的家庭、家族,更疏忽了传统文化的伦理、道德、因果的教育。教育是文化的生机,失去了圣贤教育,传统文化就面临断层的危险。这个后果在今天已经看到了,因此恢复传统文化的教育,已是当务之急。

 

Under this background Needham proposed his famous "Needham's Grand Question", also known as "The Needham Puzzle", which stimulated tremendous feedbacks.  Joseph Needham asked that despite ancient China’s important contributions to the progress of technology for mankind,[20] why did modern science and Industrial Revolution did not origin in contemporary China?  Through research for more than half a century, Needham found that the answer lies in the Chinese education system of the literati as candidates for government officials and the managerial system of the bureaucracy. Both systems had subconsciously and autonomously restrained the development of technology.

在这个背景下,李约瑟提出著名的「李约瑟之问」(也称「李约瑟之谜」),引发巨大的反响。李约瑟问:「尽管中国古代对人类科技发展做出了很多重要贡献,但为什么科学和工业革命没有在近代的中国发生?」通过长达半个多世纪的研究,李约瑟发现这个问题的答案在于中国的文官教育制度、官僚管理制度,能够自发地遏制科技发展。

 

This discovery demonstrated that the ancient Chinese has true wisdom, vision, and long-term strategies for the management of human affairs.  Dr. Arnold Toynbee in his later life felt deeply that the development of technology puts tremendous pressures on society and the people.  In his book Surviving the Future, he said,

 

”Quote here” (if cant find the original text, can use the following: Technological advance has created tremendous fortune for mankind but we are beginning to pay for it and the high price tag has reached an alarming point---the depletion of natural resources, the loss of happiness, and the increase in anxiety and insecurity in humans.) [21]

 

 

The Venerable Master Chin Kung had pointed out that excessive pursuit of efficiency will bring human annihilation.  The annihilation of mankind is caused by the after effects of speed, which makes people agitated, impetuous, and losing their rationality.  Mankind without rationality is Armageddon.

 

这个发现,显示出古代中国在管理人类事务上的真实智能和深谋远虑。汤恩比博士在晚年,深深感到科技发展将巨大的压力加诸于社会、人心之中。他在《在未来中生存》一书中,引用了这样的话:技术进步为人类创造出巨大的财富,但是我们已经开始为此付出代价,而且代价之高,已经达到了不得不警戒的时候了。自然资源消耗殆尽……人类失去幸福、惶惶不安。净空老教授曾指出:过分追求速度将给人类带来毁灭。毁灭人类的,是速度带来的心浮气躁与理性缺失。人类失去理智,就是地球末日。

 

Single-minded pursuit of technological development will instigate another problem and that is greed will feed on materialistic advancement.  The worship of competition and the simultaneous neglect of religious education and the education of the saints and sages will result in the decline of ethics.  The amalgamation of the two will cause world war III; and in this nuclear age, it means the total destruction of the Earth.

一味发展科技带来的另一个问题,便是物质进步所引发的贪欲膨胀,崇尚竞争与疏忽宗教教育、圣贤教育所造成的道德沦丧结合在一起,就会引发世界大战。核子时代的战争,必然毁灭整个地球。

 

From this point of view, approximately nineteen hundred years ago, Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), astronomer, mathematician, scientist, engineer, inventor, geographer, cartographer, artist, poet, statesman, and literary scholar,[22] the Han dynasty scientific genius, has set a paradigm of true wisdom for China’s scientific geniuses today.  Although he invented the world's first water-powered armillary sphere to assist astronomical observation and invented the world's first seismometer, which can detect the cardinal direction of an earthquake (310 mi) away,[23] he put great emphasis on studying the rites of Zhou dynasty and set up the code of etiquettes for the Han dynasty.  He advocated and propagated the law of cause and effect and the doctrine of awards and retributions incurred by individual actions.  He solemnly warned the emperor and the imperial court that to view natural disasters as caused by the decline in ethics is the correct way.  Additionally, he dedicated his old age to the establishment of rites and the composition of music.  He focused on moral education and abandoned scientific studies and refused to transmit his scientific knowledge to people.

由此看来,大约一千九百年前的张衡,为后世中国的科学天才做出了一个最有智能的榜样。虽然他是旷世奇才,发明了浑天仪、地动仪等,但是他却十分注重研究周礼,制定汉家礼仪,并努力弘扬因果报应的道理。他郑重警示皇帝与朝廷,务必正确对待天灾,因为道德沦丧是天灾真正的原因。并且,他在晚年致力于制礼作乐,重视德行教育,而且放弃了科研,不将其学问传给后人。

 

Scientific geniuses after Zhang Heng are also very careful in the transmission of knowledge.  Some would even destroy documents of their lifetime studies before departing from the world.  They do not do this out of stupidity but to protect the interest for posterity so that all future generations will not blindly pursue technological development for short-term profits and destroy the Earth.  This is the profound vision and long-term strategies of the ancient Chinese.  Toynbee held the same view.  He said that to pursue happiness, mankind developed technology; but the result was the common loss of feelings of happiness and making mankind slaves to technology.[24]

张衡之后的科学天才,也非常谨慎地传承学问,甚至在离世的时候,将自己毕生的研究销毁掉。原来这样做不是因为愚昧,而是为了爱护子孙后代,让他们不至于因为盲目追求科技发展之短期利益,而将整个地球破坏殆尽,这就是中国古人的深谋远虑。汤恩比对此也与中国古人的看法相同,他说:人类为了追求幸福而发展科技,但是其结果却让人们普遍失去了幸福感。让自己成为科技的奴隶。

 

Therefore, in the last few years of Toynbee’s life, he proposed that to avoid self-destruction, the world should be unified through cultural and religious education.  He opined that traditional Chinese culture can take on this solemn responsibility.  This conclusion is the consensus of all the peace-loving people of vision who understand traditional Chinese culture.  Joseph Needham also reached the same conclusion and in 1955 proposed that there is no time more urgent than now for China and the world to learn from Confucius, Laozi, and Mozi[25]

因此,汤恩比在晚年提出,为了避免自我毁灭,必须把世界统一起来,通过文化和宗教教育,将整个人类统合在一起。他认为,能够承担这个重任的,便是中华传统文化。这个结论,是所有深入了解中华传统文化的有识之士之共识。李约瑟在一九五五年也提出:「中国以及世界比以往任何时候更加迫切地需要向孔子、老子和墨子学习」。

 

Unfortunately, when Needham postulated this theory, China was going through a series of political movements; by the time in the 1970’s when Toynbee was postulating his theory that traditional Chinese culture can save the future world, China’s Cultural Revolution just ended.  Thus, the Western academics generally regarded these theories as “pedantic.”  At that time, the academics already compared traditional Chinese culture to that of the ancient Egyptian civilization; although spectacular but has no relation whatsoever with the modern society.  Currently, this concept has influenced the Chinese and many modern Chinese had labeled “tradition” with “feudalism” and swept it under the carpet.

遗憾的是,李约瑟提出这个观点时,中国正在经历一系列的政治运动;及至一九七年代,汤恩比提出中华传统文化能够拯救世界时,文化大革命刚刚结束。所以,西方的学术界普遍视之为「迂阔」。此时,学术界早已将中国传统文化比拟古埃及文明:灿烂美好但却与现代社会毫无关系。现在,这种思想已经影响到国人,许多现代的中国人将传统」贴上「封建」的卷标,就置之不理了。

 

IV. THE TRADITIONAL CHINESE CULTURE BELONGS TO THE ENTIRE HUMAN RACE

四、中华传统文化属于全人类

.

In the past century, China faced monumental transformation which seemed incredible.  Actually, Gu Hung-ming already predicated this in 1915, a century ago.  He had observed that more and more Chinese are westernized and less and less are receiving the education of traditional culture.  He felt that if Westernization is not restrained, then the “real Chinaman,” who had received the excellent family education and the education of ethical relations, virtues, and the law of cause and effect, will disappear from the world.  Therefore, he wrote The Spirit of the Chinese People, wishing that one day the education of traditional Chinese culture can be restored and the traditional spirit of the Chinese can be recovered.

中国在一百年间出现如此巨大的转变,看似匪夷所思,其实早已被百年前的辜鸿铭先生所预见:中国从晚清开始出现的西化的风潮,使接受传统文化教育的人越来越少。辜鸿铭感到,如果西化不能得到遏制,那么这些有著良好的家庭教育、接受了伦理、道德和因果教育的「真正的中国人」最终很有可能会在世界上消失。他因而撰写《中国人的精神》一书,以期他日能够复兴中华传统文化的教育,国人够恢复传统的精神。

 

Joseph Needham, Bertrand Russell, and Gu Hung-ming, all are sages who had thorough knowledge of the West and the East, all acted in concert to tell us that traditional Chinese culture can bring the perpetuating stability, peace, real prosperity and happiness to the world.  Their consensus is based on the virtues of Chinese culture--filial piety, sibling harmony, loyalty, trust, propriety, righteousness, honesty, shamefulness, benevolence, love, harmony, and peace—taught by the saints and sages.  This education of the saints and sages does not belong to China only but to all mankind.  It is a precious world heritage.

李约瑟、罗素和辜鸿铭这些学贯中西的前贤,他们都不约而同地告诉我们,中华传统文化能够给世界带来持久的安定和平、真正的繁荣昌盛。其所依据的,便是中华文化有「孝悌忠信、礼义廉耻、仁爱和平」的圣贤教育。这个教育,不只属于中国一家,更是全世界、全人类共有的宝贵遗产。

 

The great German poet, Goethe had said: “There are only two peaceful forces in the world—propriety and righteousness.[26]  Gu Hung-ming believed that the reason traditional Chinese culture can bring perpetuating stability and peace to the world is because of the simultaneous emphasis put on “righteousness” and “propriety.”  He said that

 

The moral force which in the past has been effective in subduing and controlling the human passions in the population of Europe, is Christianity….  Now if the people of Europe really want to put down militarism, there is only one way of doing it and that is, to use what Emerson calls the gun that does not need another gun, the law of love and justice,—in fact, moral force….  I believe the people of Europe will find this new moral force in China,—in the Chinese civilisation. The moral force in the Chinese civilisation which can make militarism unnecessary is the Religion of good citizenship. [27] 

. . .

A religion in the European sense of the word teaches a man to be a good man. But Confucianism does more than this; Confucianism teaches a man to be a good citizen. The Christian Catechism asks:"What is the chief end of man?" But the Confucian Catechism asks:"What is the chief end of a citizen?" of man, not in his individual life, but man in his relation with his fellowmen and in his relation to the State? The Christian answers the words of his Catechism by saying: "The chief end of man is to glorify God." The Confucianist answers the words of his Catechism by saying: "The chief end of man is to live as a dutiful son and a good citizen….In short, a religion in the European sense of the word makes it its object to transform man into a perfect ideal man by himself, into a saint, a Buddha, an angel, whereas Confucianism limits itself to make man into a good citizento live as a dutiful son and a good citizen. In other words, a religion in the European sense of the word says:"If you want to have religion, you must be a saint, a Buddha, an angel;" whereas Confucianism says:"If you live as a dutiful son and a good citizen, you have religion." [28]

. . .

 [T]he rise of civil society in the history of all nations begins always with the institution of The Church religion in Europe[29]… Confucius taught is a Code of Honour…Confucius made this Code out of the law of the gentleman. But now I must tell you that long before Confucius' time there existed already in China an undefined and unwritten code of the law of the gentleman. This undefined and unwritten code of the law of the gentleman in China before Confucius' time was known as li () the law of propriety, good taste or good manners.[30]

. . .

This sense of honour, called by Confucius the law of the gentleman, is not like the moral law of the philosopher and moralist, a dry, dead knowledge of the form or formula of right and wrong, but like the Righteousness of the Bible in Christianity[31]

 

 

 

德国伟大的诗人歌德曾说过:「在这个世界上,唯有两种和平的力量,即义与礼。」辜鸿铭先生认为,中国传统文化之所以能够给世界带来持久和平,正是在于它「义」、「礼」并重,他说:

 

欧洲人以《圣经》为蓝本,建立了现代欧洲文明。《圣经》教导欧洲人要热爱正义,要做一个真正的人。中华传统文化的教育,不但教人要热爱正义,做好人,更要做一个『识礼的好人』;基督教教人们要爱人,中国人则教育人们要『爱之以礼』[32][A1] 。」

 

The simultaneous focus on propriety and righteousness made the Chinese race never a lover of war but indestructible.  Russell after studying Chinese history found that--

 

The persistence of the Chinese Empire down to our own day is not to be attributed to any military skill; on the contrary, considering its extent and resources, it has at most times shown itself weak and incompetent in war…. The Huns were defeated by the Chinese after centuries of warfare; the Tartars and Manchus, on the contrary, conquered China. But they were too few and too uncivilized to impose their ideas or their way of life upon China, which absorbed them... 

 

[T]he persistence of Chinese civilization, fundamentally unchanged since the introduction of Buddhism, is a remarkable phenomenon.  Egypt and Babylonia persisted as long, but since they fell there has been nothing comparable in the world. [33] 

 

In the end, the conquerors, admired and emulated the Chinese civilization, eventually became part of the Chinese people.

传统文化义礼并重的教育,让中华民族从不好战,却反而坚不可摧。罗素观察中国历史,指出中国人因为天性和平而多次不敌外族入侵,遭遇外国人统治。然而,最终结果,便是中华文明反而让其征服者因感佩而生欢喜,因欢喜而效法,因效法而最终成为中国人的一部分。

 

The authority on contemporary Chinese History, Chen Yin-ke (1890-1969),  one of the most original and creative historians in 20th century China[34], pointed out that the concept of “The Chinese,” beginning two thousands years ago starting with the Han dynasty, is a literary concept and have no relation to race or skin color.  In other words, the true meaning of “The Chinese” is those people who love “benevolence and peace”, aspire to be “filial pious, brotherly, loyal, and trustworthy,” and focus on “propriety, righteousness, honesty, and shamefulness.”  Those people are in themselves multi-cultural and multi-faiths; due to historical reasons lived together; tolerated each other with mutual respect; and call themselves “The Chinese.” 
因此,近代国史权威陈寅恪先生指出:「中国人」这个概念,从两千年前的汉朝开始,就是一个文化的概念,与肤色种族无关[35]。也就是说,「中国人」的真正含义,就是喜欢「仁爱和平」,慕求「孝悌忠信」、重视「礼义廉耻」的人们。这一群人,本身就是多元文化、多元宗教的,因为种种历史因缘,大家走到了一起,互相包容、彼此尊重,并以「中国人」自称。

 

The so-called “China,” literally means the Middle Kingdom.  From different perspectives, every nation can be called the Middle Kingdom.  This name corresponds nicely with the Buddhist concept of the prefect harmony between the protagonist and the supporting roles.  Every nation can be the center of the world and all the other nations her satellite states.  In short, every nation can be number one.  People come together for the same aspiration of Dao and can become a single organic entity.  The sacred first commandment of the Ten Commandments in Catholic religion is “Honor your father and your mother.”  The Rosary of the Catholic Church venerates the humbleness of the Saint Maria.  The prophet Muhammad teaches people to be Beneficent and Faithful.  The great Christians and the Sikhs propagate the “sibling love,” the great German poet Goethe emphasized “propriety and righteousness,” the former prime minister of Malaysia, the elder Mahathir stresses on “Honesty and Shamefulness.” 

所谓「中国」,字面的意义便是「中间之国」,由于视角不同,每个国家,皆可成为「中间之国」。这个名称与佛法之「主伴圆融」十分相应:每个国家都可以成为中心,其余为辅,每个国家都是第一,人们因为慕道而在一起,成为一个有机的共同体。神圣的天主十诫的第一条便是「孝顺父母」,天主教《玫瑰经》赞颂圣母玛利亚的谦卑;先知穆罕默德教导人「仁慈与敬信」,伟大的基督教和锡克教讲求「兄弟姐妹之情义」,德国大诗人歌德重视「礼义」,马来西亚前首相马哈迪长老讲求「廉耻」[36]

 

The twelve virtues mentioned above, instead of being the conclusion of the virtues of traditional Chinese culture, should be the moral code of the entire human civilization.  A priori, in the early twentieth century when the cultures of the East and West conflux in the heart of China, Russell was surprised at finding that the British who lived in other parts of Asia are the same many years later, but those British who lived the longest in China will find “gradually the beauty and dignity of their existence become visible[37].”  Therefore Russell was full of faith that China will emerge eventually from the trials and tribulations of history and bring real stability, peace and order to the world.  He wrote:

The Chinese nation, is the most, patient in the world; it thinks of centuries as other nations think of decades. It is essentially indestructible, and can afford to wait. The "civilized" nations of the world…will probably destroy each other within the next hundred years, leaving the stage to those whose pacifism has kept them alive... [38]

 

由此可见,十二德目与其说是中华传统文化的总结,不如说是整个人类文明道德标准的总结。正因如此,在二十世纪初,东西方文化在中国腹地刚刚交会时,罗素不无惊奇地发现:久居远东其它地方的英国人,多年后一如故我,但是久居中国的英国人,「会渐渐获得中国人的精神面貌和价值标准」。[39]  所以,罗素对于中国将最终走出历史的困境,给世界带来真正的和平与秩序充满了信心,他说——「中国人坚不可摧,经得起等待。现在那些自称为『文明』的国度……互相残杀,最终将只剩下那些爱好和平的国家。」

 

Joseph Needham further expected the unification of the world and, in turn, the extinction of war forever.  He is as sympathetic as historian Toynbee and put great emphasis on the invaluable asset of traditional Chinese culture to world civilization.  As a scientist, Needham believed that

 

“No doubt the greatest effect of modern science on human civilization has been to unify the whole world surface.  Among the tasks of integration which humanity is now facing in the progress towards higher forms of order and union, none can well be thought larger than the confluence of the Euro-American and Chinese civilization.  The more one studies the two, the more do they see, I feel, like two different symphonies by two different composers using identical fundamental melodies.”[40]

 

李约瑟则进一步期待著世界能够融为一体,从而永远消弭战争。他与历史学家汤恩比一样悲天悯人,重视中华传统文化巨大的价值。科学家出身的李约瑟,认为

 

「现代科学对人类文明所起的最大作用就是使整个世界统一起来。而当前人类最重要的任务,莫过于使欧美文化与中国文化融合在一起。我们愈深入地研究这两种文化,就愈深刻地感到它们就像两个不同的作曲家所谱写的两部交响曲,而其基本旋律却是完全一致的。」

 

V.  CHINESE CHARACTERS AND CLASSICSTHE MEDIA AND NEXUS TO THE ACTUALIZATION OF WORLD COMITY AND UNIFICATION

五、汉字和文言文——实现全球大同的沟通媒介

 

The historian philosopher, Arnold Toynbee, specifically identified that one of the prerequisites of world unification is the efficient communication between different racial groups.  For this purpose, a universal language is required.  He believed that Chinese language will be an ideal choice because it is a construct of ideograms which can actualize the communication that transcends time and space and preserve and transmit the important legacy of mankind--wisdom.  This special quality is also emphasized by Needham and Russell.  Russell quoted an article on "Some Anthropological Problems of China," published in the Chinese Students' Monthly (Baltimore), for February 1922, by Mr. Chi Li, (p. 327) in his book The Problem of China:

 

Now, with all respects to alphabetical civilization, it must be frankly stated that it has a grave and inherent defect in its lack of solidity…. The history of the Western land repeats the same story over and over again. Thus up and down with the Greeks; up and down with Rome; up and down with the Arabs…. Certainly this phenomenon can be partially explained by the extra-fluidity of the alphabetical language which cannot be depended upon as a suitable organ to conserve any solid idea. Intellectual contents of these people may be likened to waterfalls and cataracts, rather than seas and oceans.  No other people is richer in ideas than they; but no people would give up their valuable ideas as quickly as they do. [41]

 

 

历史哲学家汤恩比在期待世界大同的时候,特别指出统一所必须的条件之一,便是不同的族群之间能够实现有效沟通,为此,就要有一种世界语。他认为,中文将是一个理想选择。这一点,是基于中文作为表意文字,能够实现超越时空的交流、保存和继承重要的智能遗产而言的。这个特殊性同时得到了李约瑟与罗素的重视,罗素说——

 

「使用字母文字的文化有一个严重的内在缺陷,那就是缺乏稳定性。……希腊人、罗马人和阿拉伯人这些使用字母文字者,其文化无一不由盛极而衰。……造成这种现象的部分原因自然是字母语言的过分流动性,因而不能保存具体确切的思想观点。这些族群的知识如奔涌的瀑布而非浩瀚的海洋,其思想之丰富无人能比,而放弃有价值观念的速度之快,也令他人望尘莫及。」

 

Similarly, Needham was awed by the perpetuation of Han characters and the literary language in the Chinese classics.  He applied scientific methods to explore their depth.  If the rise and fall of civilizations are the inevitable law of history, then, what methodology can propagate their wisdom and prevent the destruction of a once splendid civilization?  Can the ancient civilization be perpetuated under one tradition with new branches growing out of the old tree trunks, a renaissance that makes it thriving again?  This became an important question for these visionary people who embrace the world.  In studying the development of pre-modern Chinese technology, Joseph Needham and Bernhard Karlgren (1889-1978), Swedish sinologist and linguist who pioneered the study of Chinese historical phonology using modern comparative methods,[42]  analogized the literary language in the Chinese classics as the ancient “world language,” quoting Karlgren--

 

“The literary language has been an artificial thing for a thousand years and more, and for all its stylistic variations it has been essentially the same throughout the ages. Once a Chinese has succeeded in mastering it, it is the same to him, from the linguistic point of view, whether the poem he is reading was written at the time of Christ, a thousand years later, or yesterday; it is just as comprehensible and enjoyable in either case….”  

 

And it is true that this old language, in spite of its ambiguity, has a concentrated, laconic, lapidary quality, making an impression of austere elegance, pith and virility, unequalled in any other invented instrument of human communication.[43]

 

因此,李约瑟对汉字与文言文之延续性感到十分惊歎,并用科学方法对它进行深入研究。如果文明盛极而衰是难以避免的历史规律,那么,用什么方法保存智能的传承,从而让一度灿烂的美好文明不至于毁灭呢?能不能让古老的文明,一脉相承,老树新枝,根深叶茂呢?这便成为胸怀天下的智者所关心的重大问题。在研究古代中国科技发展的时候,李约瑟和汉学家高本汉(Karlgren)将文言文比喻成为古代的「世界语」——

   

「高本汉说:『一千多年来,文言文一直是一种人为之物,而且尽管有那么多格调的变化,这些年代以来,它基本上是一样的。一个人一旦掌握了它,他所读的诗,无论是在基督时代写的,还是在公元一千年以后写的,或者是昨天写的,从语言学观点上看,对他都是一样的;不管是什么时代写的,他都能理解并欣赏它』。……

 

(所以),汉字和文言文,这个古老的文字,有一种精炼、简洁和玉琢般的特质,给人的印象是朴素而优雅,简练而有力,超过人类创造出来的表达思想感情的任何其它工具。」[44]

 

If sinologists can see the inscriptions on the recently unearthed vessels of ancient rites, they will be happy to discover that the historical Chinese literary language is indeed the world language.  It enables people of different language and cultural background to communicate successfully.  It is concise without losing eloquence.  This has been an important aid in the formation of China--the Middle Kingdom.  The Han characters and the literary language manifest the spirit of human civilization, the grand way of nature; therefore, people within the four seas can resonate with the truth of life and the universe recorded through the literary language.

如果汉学家能够看到近代出土的上古礼器铭文,那么他们就会很开心的发现,文言文在历史上的确就是世界语,它是使有著各种文化背景、语言不通的人们,彼此成功交流的最有效、最简洁而不失优雅的方式,也是华夏这个「中间之国」得以形成的重要助力。汉字与文言文所昭示的,是人文的精神、是自然的大道,故四方人民,对文言文所记载的宇宙人生的真理,皆能产生共鸣。

 

VI. CONCLUSIONWORLD CULTURE CONFORMS TO THE PROFOUNDITY OF DAO SUBSCONCIOUSLY

六、结语——世界文化暗合道妙

In the early third century, the ancient Roman philosopher, Plotinus (AD 204-270) was born in Egypt.  He proposed the “One" concept and pointed out that there is a supreme, totally transcendent “One," containing no division, multiplicity or distinction; beyond all categories of being and non-being.  The "One" concept of Plotinus "cannot be any existing thing," nor is it merely the sum of all things, but "is prior to all existents."  Plotinus identified his "One" with the concept of “Good” and the principle of “Beauty.”[45]  A century before Plotinus, the philologist during Han dynasty, Xu Shen (AD 58-147), was working assiduously to continue the excellent epistemology of the ancient sages.  He became the first to organize the Chinese characters by shared components (radicals), as well as the author of Shuwen Jiezi, the first Chinese dictionary to analyze the structure of the characters and to give the rationale behind them, sometimes also the etymology of the words represented by them.[46]  The first word in his analytical dictionary is “One.”  According to Xu Shen’s explanation, “One” means “the primordial existence, One is the source of Dao, which divides the heaven and earth; all beings and non-beings metamorphosized from One.”  Plotinus and Xu Shen has never met each other but the great minds think alike.  The Grand Course (Dao) originates from “One.”  It is the universal truism.  The Roman Empire and Han dynasty had each sent envoys to traverse over mountains and seas but were never able to meet.  However, their individual spirituality, without the need to communicate, resonates with each other from afar.  Tracing the roots of all the great civilizations, from ancient times to the present, from the West to the East, all conform to the profundity of Dao tacitly “using identical fundamental melodies.”

公元三世纪初,出生于埃及的古罗马哲学家普罗提诺(Plotinus, 公元204-270)提出「一」(The One)的概念,指出万物生于一,此为至善。一个多世纪之前,中国的许慎(公元58-147年),在家中奋力继往圣之绝学,将古人关于造字的资料汇成《说文解字》,书中第一个字便是「一」,许慎释之为「惟初太始,道立于一。造分天地,化成万物」。二人从未面谋,却英雄所见略同,是为大道归一,放之四海而皆准。罗马与汉朝,多次派使节翻山渡海以求彼此沟通而最终未能握手。然而其精神,却无需沟通就能遥相呼应。可见,古今中外所有伟大的文明,究其根本是暗合道妙的,「其基本旋律也是完全一致的」。

 

Plotinus and Xu Shen although both talked about Dao, or “One,” but the words written by Plotinus are not understandable by people today.  However, Xu Shen used the literary language and can still be understood by the Chinese today.  The Venerable Master Chin Kung said: “the Han characters and the literary language are the greatest inventions in human history.”  We can see the truth of the Master’s words from this comparison.

普罗提诺和许慎,虽然所言皆是道,但是前者所写的文字,今人读不懂;而后者所书之文言,今人可以理解。净空老教授说:「汉字和文言文,是有史以来人类最伟大的发明。」此中可见。

 

In the Book of Rites, the chapter on "Ceremonial Usages," Confucius stated: “When the Grand Course was pursued, a public and common spirit ruled all under the sky.”[47]  Two thousand years later, Joseph Needham was also of the same spirit and wrote his book Within the Four Seas in order to realize early what Confucius has also advocated--all are brothers within the four seas.  From ancient times to the late Chin dynasty, the tradition of family education, ethical relations, virtues, and the law of cause and effect had made the Chinese people love and respect from the heart.  They are law-abiding good citizens, with mutual trust, assistance, and love, worked together to maintain social order without police enforcement.  Both Russell and Gu Hung-ming praised highly this Spirit of the Chinese people.  It is also the excellent characteristic shared by all human beings, aided with good family education, the respect of the teachers, and the social education of mutual respect and love, all can be like the legendary emperors Yoa and Shun, and all can be future saints and sages.  Therefore, the traditional Chinese culture is a precious world heritage; the manifestation of all the excellent traditions of different races in the world.  The propagation of the education of traditional culture will surely bring real stability, peace, and happiness to the world.

《礼记》之「大道之行也,天下为公」,被两千年之后的李约瑟所领悟,而著书《四海之内》以期待早日实现孔子所言之「四海之内皆兄弟也」。上古至晚清所传承的家庭教育、伦理、道德、因果的教育,使人民自发成为爱敬存心、遵纪守法的好人,大家彼此信赖、互助互爱、互相配合而无需军警维护社会秩序,这使罗素和辜鸿铭赞歎不已。所谓「中国人的精神」,原本是人类所共有的美好特质,辅之以良好的家教、尊严的师道以及互敬互爱的社会教育,则人人可以成尧舜,代代可以出圣贤。是故,中华传统文化的教育,既是属于世界的珍贵文化遗产,也是世界各民族伟大传统的具体体现。弘扬传统文化的教育,必然能够给世界带来真正的和平、安宁与幸福。

 

 

 

 



[1] Russell, Bertrand, The Problem of China, Ch. 1, ”Questions.” London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1st Ed. 1922. 

See, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/13940/13940-h/13940-h.htm#CHAPTER_I.

 罗素著,秦悦译,《中国问题》。上海:学林出版社,1996年,页7

 

[3] Id., The Problem of China, Ch.1 “Questions.”

 

[4] Id. Ch. XI. “Chinese and Western Civilization Contrasted.  Original text reads: “When I went to China, I went to teach; but every day that I stayed I thought less of what I had to teach them and more of what I had to learn from them.”

 

[6] Needham, Joseph, Within the Four Seas: the Dialogue of East and West, pp. 25-26.  Toronto: University of Toronto, 1969.

 

[8] New International Version of the Bible.  See,  http://biblehub.com/john/3-16.htm

 

[9] Sahih International translation of The Koran, 59:22.  See, http://corpus.quran.com/translation.jsp?chapter=59&verse=22

 

[10] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/analects/yan-yuan, para. 5.

 

[12] Gu, Hong-ming, The Spirit of Chinese People, ch.1.  The Peking Daily News, 1915.   http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Spirit_of_the_Chinese_People/1

 

[13] Id.

 

[14] Id. 辜鸿铭著,《中国人的精神》,页56.

 

[15] Id. 辜鸿铭,页60.

 

[16] Russell, The Problem of China, ch. XI, “Chinese and Western Civilization Contrasted.”

 

[17] Id., ch. XII “The Chinese Character.”

 

[18] 《中国问题》,页159-161.

 

[19] Id., ch. 1 “Questions.”

 

[20] "Gunpowder, the magnetic compass, and paper and printing, which Francis Bacon considered as the three most important inventions facilitating the West's transformation from the Dark Ages to the modern world, were invented in China."  "The Needham Puzzle: Why the Industrial Revolution Did Not Originate in China".Economic Development and Cultural Change 43 (2): 269–292.doi:10.1086/452150.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Needham#cite_note-Lin_269.E2.80.93292-13

 

 

[21] Toynbee, Arnold, Surviving the Future, Chapter 4.

 

[22] His accomplishments in astronomer have been compared to his contemporary, Ptolemy. 

See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhang_Heng

 

[23] Id.

 

[24] Toynbee, Surviving the Future, Chapter 4.  汤恩比,《在未来中生存》,第四章。

 

[25] Mozi (ca. 470 – 391 BC) was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).  His philosophy emphasized self-restraint, self-reflection and authenticity rather than obedience to ritual. Mozi tried to replace what he considered to be the long-entrenched Chinese over-attachment to family and clan structures with the concept of "impartial caring" or "universal love" (, jiān ài).   See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozi

 

[26] 这句话引自辜鸿铭的《中国人的精神》。原文是:Es gibt zwei friedliche Gewalten auf der Welt: Das Rechtund die Schicklichkeit.

 

[27] Gu, The Spirit of the Chinese People, Introduction.

See, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Spirit_of_the_Chinese_People/Introduction

 

[28] Gu, The Spirit of the Chinese People, Chapter 1

 See, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Spirit_of_the_Chinese_People/1

 

[29] Id.

 

[30] Id.

 

[31] Id.

 

[32] 辜鸿铭,《中国人的精神》,页46-47.

 

[33] Russell,  The Problem of China, Ch. 2.

 

[35] Chen, Yin-ke, Jin Ming Guan Cong Gao Chu Bian (Writings on Jin Ming Guan, Vol. 1)

陈寅恪,《金明馆丛稿》(页码待查。)

 

[36] 见马哈迪长老于九十高龄接受印尼希达亚都拉回教大学颁赠荣誉博士时的演讲。中文见印尼《国际日报》(20140516A3)

 

[37] Russell, The Problem of China, Ch. XI, the whole text is as follows: “In art they aim at being exquisite, and in life at being reasonable. There is no admiration for the ruthless strong man, or for the unrestrained expression of passion. After the more blatant life of the West, one misses at first all the effects at which they are aiming; but gradually the beauty and dignity of their existence become visible, so that the foreigners who have lived longest in China are those who love the Chinese best.

 

[38] Id., ch.1 “The Questions.”

 

[39] Russell, Bertrand, The Problem of China, 《中国问题》页158.

 

[40] Needham, Joseph, Within the Four Seas: the Dialogue of East and West, p.96.  《四海之内》页94.

 

[41] The Problem of China, Ch. 2, 《中国问题》页26.

 

[43] Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, pp. 40-41.

[44]《中国科学技术史》页39.

 

[45] PlotinusEnneadV.2.1. In Plotinus, Ennead II, 9 'Against the Gnostics', Leuven:Peeters2012. See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plotinus

 

The One is a source of all existents. It is the eternally present possibility – or active making-possible – of all existence, of Being. (V.2.1).  The One is an equivalent to “The Good”

 

[47] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/liji/li-yun

 


 [A1]I can’t find the equivalent of this passage in the original text in the given pages as indicated in the footnote.  So I just digested some from chapter 1, which is more than what is given here in the Chinese translation.

有谁推荐more
全站分类:不分类 不分类
上一则: 群书治要-5
下一则: 群书治要-4
发表回响

会员登入